Tag Archives: ICT

Article : “IT firms have changed the game of entrepreneurship”

Published in The Hindu, 18th October 2016

An interview with Roland Lardinois

From studying the economic strength of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) firms in India to analysing the background of the person at the helm of these firms, a French senior sociologist has attempted to take a closer look into the sociography of the major companies of the ICT sector in India.

Continue reading : http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/puducherry/it-firms-have-changed-the-game-of-entrepreneurship/article9232740.ece

Book: Carol Upadhya, Reengineering India

Reengineering India. Work, Capital, and Class in an Offshore Economy, Oxford University Press, July 2016, 359 p., ISBN: 9780199461486.

9780199461486Carol Upadhya

  • It is a comprehensive anthropological study of the Indian IT industry
  • It is unique in that it draws on long-term and in-depth ethnographic research inside software organizations and based on extensive interviews with IT professionals and others connected with the industry
  • It examines the origins of software capital, the shaping of the Indian IT workforce, the new management practices and forms of work introduced in IT workspaces, and the connections between IT and the middle class in an overarching and coherent fashion.

https://global.oup.com/academic/product/reengineering-india-9780199461486?cc=in&lang=en&#

 

Séminaire : Que fait la figure de l’ingénieur au monde social en Inde? 19/02/2016

Séminaire de recherche IDHES-Département de sociologie

Lignes d’effervescence en sociologie des groupes professionnels

Première séance : Vendredi 19 février 10h-12h30

Salle T11, bâtiment T, Université de Nanterre

Roland Lardinois

(Centre d’études de l’Inde et de l’Asie du Sud, CNRS)

Que fait la figure de l’ingénieur au monde social en Inde ?

Résumé : La prolifération des écoles d’ingénieurs en Inde depuis une vingtaine d’années, la compétition accrue pour parvenir à entrer dans les écoles les plus prestigieuses comme les Indian Institute of Technology, le développement sans précédent de centres de préparation (coaching centers) aux concours d’entrée dans ces écoles professionnelles (ingénieurs et médecine), la mise en place d’un système parascolaire organisé sur un mode quasi-industriel pour s’adresser à ces milliers de candidats potentiels, le poids des formations informatiques liées à l’expansion du secteur des technologies de l’information, l’exemplarité donnée par quelques grandes firmes multinationales comme Infosys, tout cela contribue à interroger ce que la figure de l’ingénieur fait à la société indienne dans un contexte de libéralisation économique où tout service éducatif se monnaie sur un marché libre qui n’épargne aucun secteur de l’économie que l’Etat peine à encadrer.

Le séminaire « Lignes d’effervescence en sociologie des groupes professionnels »

Dans le travail de tout chercheur, il existe des domaines familiers, dans lesquels une solide expérience a été acquise, et des domaines en cours d’exploration, où des investigations ont été engagées mais n’ont pas encore donné lieu à des connaissances reconnues et stabilisées. Pour le dire à la manière de T. Kuhn, l’activité de recherche comporte des aspects de « science normale » et des points d’effervescence, des pistes dans lesquelles on s’aventure pour aborder un domaine nouveau ou s’essayer à des cadres théoriques inhabituels. C’est à la présentation de tels chantiers, à ces objets ou perspectives à l’état d’esquisse qu’est consacré ce séminaire : l’auteur-e sera invité-e à faire part de ses réflexions, ses choix et ses hésitations, sans cacher les difficultés ou les doutes qu’il rencontre.

Public

Le séminaire est conçu à l’attention des étudiant-e-s du master « Etudes et recherches sociologiques, des chercheur-e-s de l’IDHES, des membres du département de sociologie de Nanterre, mais il est ouvert à l’ensemble des chercheur-e-s et doctorant-e-s intéressé-e-s.

Séance suivante

Le 11 mars 2016, Reinhard Gressel (IFSTTAR) et Charles Gadea (IDHES) : « Les professionnels mobiles. Une problématique en mouvement »

Coordination

Valérie Boussard (IDHES) valerie.boussard@u-paris10.fr et Charles Gadea (IDHES) charles .gadea@u-paris10.fr

Research Associate Posts on Gender, Skilled Migration and IT

Research Associate

Open University – Faculty of Social Sciences, Geography

We have an exciting opportunity for 2 Research Associates to work on a 2-year ESRC funded project Gender, Skilled Migration and IT:  a comparative study of India and the UK.

You will be a dynamic, highly motivated person, with a PhD in human geography, sociology, gender, development studies or other areas relevant to the project. Excellent skills in qualitative or quantitative research are essential and ideally you will also have some post-doctoral research experience.

One post will be based in the UK but will involve extended periods of fieldwork (of up to 6 months) in India while the other will be almost entirely UK based. We are looking for one researcher with quantitative skills and one with experience of qualitative research. Some knowledge of the IT industry and/or IT labour market would be useful.

If you would like to discuss the particulars of this role before making an application please contact Prof. Parvati Raghuram at parvati.raghuram@open.ac.uk or Dr. Clem Herman at Clem.Herman@open.ac.uk.

Closing date:  Noon 10 December 2015

Interview date: Interviews will be held early January 2016

For detailed information and how to apply go to http://www.open.ac.uk/employment/job-details.asp?id=8931 or email Socsci-Recruitment@open.ac.uk quoting the reference number.

We promote diversity in employment and welcome applications from all sections of the community.

— The Open University is incorporated by Royal Charter (RC 000391), an exempt charity in England & Wales and a charity registered in Scotland (SC 038302). The Open University is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority.

Book : Tamil Brahmans. The making of a middle-class caste

9780226152745 A cruise along the streets of Chennai—or Silicon Valley—filled with professional young Indian men and women, reveals the new face of India. In the twenty-first century, Indians have acquired a new kind of global visibility, one of rapid economic advancement and, in the information technology industry, spectacular prowess. In this book, C. J. Fuller and Haripriya Narasimhan examine one particularly striking group who have taken part in this development: Tamil Brahmans—a formerly traditional, rural, high-caste elite who have transformed themselves into a new middle-class caste in India, the United States, and elsewhere.Fuller and Narasimhan offer one of the most comprehensive looks at Tamil Brahmans around the world to date. They examine Brahman migration from rural to urban areas, more recent transnational migration, and how the Brahman way of life has translated to both Indian cities and American suburbs. They look at modern education and the new employment opportunities afforded by engineering and IT. They examine how Sanskritic Hinduism and traditional music and dance have shaped Tamil Brahmans’ particular middle-class sensibilities and how middle-class status is related to the changing position of women. Above all, they explore the complex relationship between class and caste systems and the ways in which hierarchy has persisted in modernized India.

http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/T/bo18241312.html

Online publication : the ICT sector in India

Roland Lardinois, en collaboration avec P. Vignesh Illavarasam, Le secteur des technologies de l’information et de la communication en Inde, Les études de l’emploi cadre, n°2014-07, Février 2014, Association pour l’emploi des cadres, Paris, 142 pages.

http://cadres.apec.fr/Emploi/Observatoire-de-l-emploi/Les-etudes-Apec-par-thematique/Region-et-international2/Secteur-des-TIC-et-informaticiens-en-Inde

Le travail d’investigation réalisé a utilisé toutes les méthodes classiques : recherches et veilles documentaires, entretiens qualitatifs, enquête quantitative. Il éclaire sur une société et une économie où les transformations sont profondes. Ceci a pour premier effet de faire de l’Inde étudiée, un monde plus proche, mais néanmoins spécifique, tant par rapport aux pays développés que par rapport aux autres pays émergents. Toutes les données accumulées proposent une nouvelle lecture de la réalité indienne. Elles donnent à voir les conditions d’émergence d’une classe moyenne éduquée et urbaine dans un pays où la grande majorité des emplois relèvent du secteur primaire (agriculture) et dont la population vit massivement en milieu rural. Elles montrent aussi l’impact des choix politiques, publics et privés, privilégiant le développement du secteur des services IT. Continue reading

ENGIND Seminar : Aurélie Varrel – Researching on IT engineers return migration in the 2000s: socio-spatial trajectories and spatial mobility.

Le deuxième atelier de l’ANR ENGIND – Ingénieurs et société en Inde coloniale et post-coloniale se tiendra le 17 février 2014

de 14h à 17h, en salle 638, CEIAS-EHESS, 6e étage, 190-198 avenue de France, Paris
Métros : Bibliothèque (ligne 14) ou Quai de la gare (ligne 6)

 

Aurélie VARREL

(CEIAS – Centre d’Études de l’Inde et de l’Asie du Sud- CNRS)

 Enquêter sur le retour des ingénieurs IT à Bangalore au début des années 2000 : trajectoires socio-professionnelles et mobilité spatiale 

Cette communication présentera certains résultats d’une enquête menée à Bangalore dans les années 2000 auprès d’un échantillon d’ingénieurs du secteur des hautes technologies. Ce groupe a pour double caractéristique d’une part le type d’emploi et le secteur d’activité en Inde, d’autre part une trajectoire spatiale et professionnelle originale : il s’agit d’ex-migrants revenus en Inde au terme d’une période d’expatriation professionnelle à l’étranger, principalement des États-Unis. Cette migration de retour s’est articulée avec l’évolution de la géographie économique à l’échelle mondiale, en dehors de toute incitation politique directe, ce qui en fait un cas sans précédent dans le domaine des études migratoires. Cette communication portera plus précisément sur la complexité du retour comme étape dans des trajectoires individuelles qui seront examinées à la fois sous l’angle des parcours professionnels et d’un point de vue spatial. Continue reading

ENGIND Seminar : Roland Lardinois – The Indian ITC Sector

ajjcddaj « Le secteur des technologies de l’information et de la communication en Inde. Éducation, formation et emploi des informaticiens »

Roland LARDINOIS  (CEIAS )

Le premier atelier de l’ANR Ingénieurs et société en Inde coloniale et post-coloniale (ENGIND)

aura lieu le 7 janvier 2014 à 14h30 en salle 640

Centre d’Études de l’Inde et de l’Asie du Sud/CNRS-EHESS

190 avenue de France 75013

Book: ICTs and Economic Development

Ashwani Saith and M. Vijayabaskar (eds), ICT and Indian Economic Development. Economy, Work, Regulation, New Delhi, Sage Publications, 2005

“This book evaluates the recent phenomenon of Information technology communication (ICT) development in India, and discusses such questions as: Can the growth be sustained? How far can an ICT revolution go towards modernising India’s economy? What could be the capacity of ICTs to induce rapid social transformation and change? Can India navigate all the pitfalls and hazards and retain its current comparative advantage in the field of ICT?

– Provide a systematic overview of the major developments and trends in the Indian ICT sector;

– Investigates the dynamism of the IT sector and whether it has contributed to wealth creation in any significant measure; and whether Bangalore, in its area of special strength-software-is a dynamic leader or merely a Silicon Valley follower;

– Assess the role of the State and of government policy, especially with regard to the opportunities for shaping the future of this sector;

– Explore the processes of the restructuring of work and employment in the wake of the IT revolution;

– Set the Indian experience in a wider context through a discussion of the Chinese experience, along with a comparative analysis of ICT clusters in the two countries.”

Book: ICTs and Social Change

Ashwani Saith, M. Vijayabaskar, V. Gayathri, ICTs and Indian Social Change. Diffusion, Poverty, Governance, New Delhi, Sage Publications, 2008

“This book is the first of its kind in putting together the optimistic voices of techno-idealists, critical social science perspectives on technology and a range of empirical material on the impacts of ICTs on the lives of people via its diffusion in the urban and rural spaces of work, consumption, e-governance and the new kinds of social identities it has fostered in India.

This volume views the diffusion of ICTs in India primarily from the socio-cultural realm. It provides an empirical and theoretical critique of some of the important premises that undergird these initiatives and brings together the voices of innovators in the ICT for development domain. It opens up an entire arena for dialogue between activists, technocrats, bureaucrats and academia on using ICTs to deliver development.”

Book: “Body Shopping” in ICT India

Xiang Biao, Global “Body Shopping”: An Indian Labor System in the Information Technology Industry, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2006

“How can America’s information technology (IT) industry predict serious labor shortages while at the same time laying off tens of thousands of employees annually? The answer is the industry’s flexible labor management system–a flexibility widely regarded as the modus operandi of global capitalism today. Global “Body Shopping” explores how flexibility and uncertainty in the IT labor market are constructed and sustained through concrete human actions.

Drawing on in-depth field research in southern India and in Australia, and folding an ethnography into a political economy examination, Xiang Biao offers a richly detailed analysis of the India-based global labor management practice known as “body shopping.” In this practice, a group of consultants–body shops–in different countries works together to recruit IT workers. Body shops then farm out workers to clients as project-based labor; and upon a project’s completion they either place the workers with a different client or “bench” them to await the next placement. Thus, labor is managed globally to serve volatile capital movement.

Underpinning this practice are unequal socioeconomic relations on multiple levels. While wealth in the New Economy is created in an increasingly abstract manner, everyday realities–stock markets in New York, benched IT workers in Sydney, dowries in Hyderabad, and women and children in Indian villages–sustain this flexibility.”

 

Report: R & D in ICT India

Payal Malik and P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan, Trends in Public and Private Investments in ICT R&D in India,  European Commission, Joint Research Centre Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2011

Executive Summary

“The Indian Information Communication Technology (ICT) industry is contributing to the national economy in many ways and almost all states in India are targeting the sector as a vehicle for economic development. NASSCOM’s 2009 strategic report estimates that the Indian IT-BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) industry achieved revenues of USD 71.7 billion in FY2009, of which the IT software and services industry accounted for USD 60 billion. Direct employment at the end of March 2009 was expected to reach nearly 2.23 million, while indirect job creation was estimated to touch 8 million. The sector’s revenues grew from 1.2% of national GDP in FY1998 to an estimated 5.8% in FY2009. The net value added by this sector to the economy was estimated at 3.5-4.1% for FY2009.

The Indian ICT sector has evolved in three phases: up to 1984, 1984–1990 and post-1990. In the first phase, apart from trying to establish its own technological trajectories, the state attempted to run the industry which resulted in no commercial sector. In this phase, there was no great differentiation between software and hardware. In the second phase, the government realized that software was a viable option for income generation and technological capability enhancement. In the third phase, the software export industry blossomed, aggressively promoted by both national and sub-national governments. Consequently, the export-driven growth model ignored the hardware sector and domestic sector, despite their huge potential. Though the ICT sector is growing in all domains, it is predominantly driven by software services and telecom services.

Until the 1990s, the Indian economy was under state control and there was little incentive for private industry to invest in R&D. The Indian ICT sector is dominated by the larger players with the top 200 firms contributing about 86% of the total revenues in 2008. Multinational firms dominate in the innovation space through their Indian R&D centres. Although larger Indian firms perform R&D activities, they are sub-contractors and do not have ownership of their activities. An analysis of secondary data showed that most of the multinational firms follow the conventional outsourcing model: they enter India as a cost centre which then evolves into a technology centre.

At present, the ICT sector is clustered in six cities: Bangalore, Pune, Chennai, Hyderabad, the National Capital Region (Noida, Delhi and Gurgaon) and Mumbai. However, efforts are being made by the central and state governments to spread the sector to second-tier cities. A comparison of the major ICT clusters shows that the Bangalore cluster presents a more mature eco-system for the ICT industry compared to the other clusters. Due to its historical lead advantages, it has a deep labour market, proximity to well-known research institutes, government research labs, the presence of venture capital, and a healthy mix of large domestic firms, multinationals and other supplementary firms.

Hardware manufacturing is weak with some innovation happening in semiconductor design and manufacturing. Poor manufacturing capabilities and lack of adequate support infrastructure will continue to put the Indian ICT industry at a disadvantage to competitive producers like China, Taiwan and Korea.

University-industry alliances are much to be desired, but they are limited to campus placement and student internships. The labour pool with engineering or ICT-related education is impressive in terms of numbers, but a closer look reveals a poor research component.

Though Indian firms are expanding their global reach and technology domains in service through acquisitions, it is difficult to conclude that R&D capabilities have been acquired. Indian firms continue to cater to western clients through software product development or engineering services, and they innovate for in-house consumption rather than developing off the-shelf products for the open market.

Since the Indian ICT sector concentrates on services, innovation is predominantly on processes. This service innovation can be observed in other areas:

• Transition from on-site to off-shore, by sending people for project execution at the client’s site to executing and managing projects in India;

• Productised services, in which Indian firms standardise the services provided to clients and sell them as productised services, a level below off-the-shelf products;

• Virtual extension, in which Indian firms serve as sub-contractors but interact with primary clients directly;

• Human capital capacity building, because though human capital is available, skill gaps are met by the sector itself.

• Finally, service process innovation is crucial in explaining the success of the Indian telecom sector. Tailored tariff packages in line with the affordability profiles of Indians and also outsourced network expansion were the first of their kind and have yet to become a global trend.”