Author Archives: roland lardinois

Review: Engineers in Portugal

Maria de Lurdes Rodrigues, Os engenheiros em Portugal,  Oeiras, Celta, 1999

Review by Charles Gadea

Assez proches du cas français, les ingénieurs sont considérés au Portugal comme une élite, à laquelle échoient des positions de pouvoir et de prestige bien au-delà des fonctions techniques des entreprises ou des services d’Etat. Cet ouvrage visite l’histoire des ingénieurs, distinguant quatre grandes étapes de la construction de la profession : la genèse de la profession au milieu du XIXe siècle, l’émergence des ingénieurs au sens moderne du terme avec la création de l’Instituto Superior Técnico en 1911 et celle de l’Ordre des ingénieurs en 1926, l’affirmation du rôle des ingénieurs dans la société portugaise de 1926 à la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, et le « temps des ingénieurs », la période qui court de la fin de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale à la  Révolution des œillets (1974) et qui voit les ingénieurs accéder à un rôle de premier plan dans la direction du développement technique et économique du pays. S’il consacre plusieurs chapitres à l’étude de la place des ingénieurs dans les organisations et dans la société portugaise contemporaine (en particulier du point de vue de la mobilité sociale), le livre de Maria de Lurdes Rodrigues ne manque pas pour autant de tracer un intéressant état de l’art recensant les principales recherches et les débats des années 1980. Il fait notamment ressortir les ambiguïtés de la situation des ingénieurs, qui ne correspond pas entièrement, dans beaucoup de pays, au modèle de la profession au sens anglo-américain, mais il a la sagesse de refuser de se noyer dans la discussion stérile qui consiste à vouloir déterminer si les ingénieurs constituent ou non une profession, et de se tourner plutôt vers l’examen des propriétés empiriques des ingénieurs portugais.

Review: Engineers in Argentina

Marta Panaia, Trayectorias de ingenieros tecnologicos, Madrid, Buenos Aires, Mino y Davila, 2006.

Reviewed by Charles Gadéa

Ce copieux ouvrage (712 pages) analyse les trajectoires d’insertion et les carrières d’ingénieurs diplômés et étudiants argentins issus des formations technologiques, un peu sur le modèle des enquêtes de cohorte du Céreq que l’auteure connaît grâce à l’expérience acquise lors d’un séjour au Laboratoire d’économie et sociologie du travail (LEST). Elle réalise ainsi un travail pionnier dans le contexte argentin, tentant de trouver réponse aux questions que posent la distinction des  facteurs individuels et collectifs dans la détermination des trajectoires d’insertion, les propriétés des cohortes, les effets de génération, les problèmes méthodologiques d’élaboration de typologies des parcours, etc. Son hypothèse de départ consiste à considérer que l’insertion des jeunes diplômés constitue à la fois un processus de passage de l’inactivité à l’activité et le résultat de ce processus. En tant que processus, elle doit être saisie à travers une approche longitudinale tenant compte des temporalités, et donc différent de la simple mesure du taux d’emploi à l’issue de la période d’insertion. Bien que ce processus soit individuel, il est possible d’étudier le parcours de groupes homogènes ou générations de diplômés, qui sont confrontés à des contextes et des problèmes d’insertion comparables dans la mesure où ils doivent faire face à des facteurs structurants issus du champ de la profession ou de la conjoncture économique.  La démarche empirique combine une approche qualitative  par entretiens biographiques inspirée de la grounded theory et une enquête par questionnaire auprès d’une population de diplômés de l’Université technologique nationale, d’élèves inscrits et d’étudiants ayant abandonné leur formation dans ce même établissement. Les résultats, forts riches, détaillent pour chacune de ces populations différentes dimensions d’analyse telles que le genre, les origines sociales, la spécialité de formation, l’effet des formations complémentaires, la durée des études… Ils conduisent à d’intéressantes réflexions sur la construction de la compétence des ingénieurs exposées dans la conclusion.

Book: Architects & Engineers

Antoine Picon, Architectes et ingénieurs au siècle des lumières, Paris, Editions Parenthèses, 1988

« “Un bon architecte n’est point un homme ordinaire, puisqu’indépendamment des règles fondamentales de son art, il est important qu’il soit muni de la théorie de ceux qui y ont relation, tels que les mathématiques, la perspective, la sculpture, la peinture, l’art du jardinage, la coupe des pierres, la menuiserie, la charpenterie, etc. tout est de son ressort. Il lui est également essentiel d’être homme de lettres, d’avoir reçu une éducation cultivée, et d’être d’une probité à toute épreuve ; Vitruve exigeait même que nous eussions des connaissances de la philosophie, de la physique expérimentale, de la médecine et de la musique. Qu’on juge donc par là de l’importance de cette profession.” Jaques-François Blondel, Discours sur la nécessité de l’étude de l’architecture, 1754. »

« “Un sous-ingénieur doit avoir été doué d’un génie vaste et pénétrant, capable de découvrir les rapports, de saisir les objets les plus éloignés, d’atteindre les choses les plus abstraites, et d’en faire les applications les plus heureuses. Son esprit doit être cultivé pour soutenir par la force et la solidité de ses raisonnements, la profondeur et l’étendue de ses recherches : il doit avoir aussi reçu de la nature une âme sensible et patriotique pour hâter les projets qui lui paraîtront utiles à l’Etat et à ses compatriotes, et du goût pour distinguer les plus utiles et les moins dispendieux.” De Bourges, Dissertation d’élève de l’Ecole des ponts et chaussées, 1779. »

Book: Social Mobility among the Professions (India)

S. M. Dubey, Social mobility among the professions: study of the professions in a transitional Indian city, Bombay, Popular Prakashan, 1975

“This was a pioneering work on the sociology of professions in India based on a study of three hundred members of six professions (Free professionals : lawyers and medical doctors ; Salaried professionals : Civil and Railways officials, engineers and overseers, doctors (in service), university teachers, college teachers, bank managers ; Semi-professionals : journalists) from Gorakhpur, in Uttar Pradesh. The extent of mobility in three generations and its causes and consequences have been examined in terms of the major variables of occupation, education, income, caste and family.

In his analysis S. M. Dubey covers a wide range of topics, such as the theoretical framework of class, status, mobility and professions; the nature of the transitional city, the growth of professions and their social composition and nature of physical, educational, occupational and psychic mobility among the professions. The author has maintained a good balance between the stratification concepts and approaches that are fashionable among the Western sociologists and the unique forces and conditions that influence the structure of the Indian society.

At the final phase of the study, the author touches upon some of the basic issues of stratification. He believes that in their formulation, the functional and conflict theorists of stratification as well as the liberal democracies and communist societies have equally fragmented the ideas of equality which needs a careful treatment in its totality.

The members of the professions are modern elites of India; a study of their growth and mobility is, therefore, of the highest importance for understanding the direction of social change in India.”

S. M. Dubey was Professor and Head of the Department of Sociology and Centre for Sociological Study of the Frontier Region at the University of Dibrugarh. He was a product of the Department of Sociology, University of Lucknow. He had been previously lecturing to the Post Graduate students at the University of Gorakhpur since 1959. He was awarded the Doctorate by the University of Gorakhpur, in 1967, on his work ‘Social mobility among the professions in a city in Transition’ which was considered as the first major and systematic work on the Sociology of Mobility and Professions in India. The present book, is the revised version of his Ph.D. thesis. He joined the University of Dibrugarh in September 1968 and later on has been elected V. C. of the University.

Book: The Indian Flag

Arundhati Virmani, A National Flag for India, New Delhi, Permanent Black, 2008

“Unearthing the complex history of the making of the Indian national flag, Arundhati Virmani reveals cultural processes that imposed a set of values and sentiments on an incredibly diverse and scattered body of people. She shows that the Indian flag had strong roots in the ethos of colonialism. It was a major resource for the nationalist movement, a tool that allowed large social diversities to assert the compelling necessity for a new political culture with secular nationalism as the unifying pole. This viewpoint was contested by the Muslim League, the Sikhs, the Indian princes, and Hindu nationalists. So how, in the end, did the Indian flag come to fly as it does today? And how, in contrast, was the flag of Pakistan created?”

“The long and difficult elaboration of the Indian national flag, the diverse and sometimes contrary expectations that built up around this object during half a century with their stakes profoundly rooted in the social world: these essential aspects of the historian’s work are masterfully unravelled in this book.” Jacques Revel, Historian, EHESS, Paris

Book: Chinese Society

Tania Angeloff, Histoire de la société chinoise, 1949-2009, Paris, Editions La Découverte (Repères 545), 2010

Work, social stratification, ethnic group, men-women relations, etc…all the aspects of Chinese society since 1949 are examined in this highly original work, that blends together the fields of history and sociology for a better understanding of Chinese society and how she arrived to such modernity – unique in its practical details ?”

“Avec plus d’un milliard trois cent trente millions d’habitants, la société chinoise fascine ou effraie. Depuis 1949, elle a connu l’arrivée des communistes au pouvoir, le maoïsme et l’ère des réformes à partir de Deng Xiaoping. À l’heure d’un libéralisme économique ouvertement capitaliste, elle vit une mutation socioéconomique accélérée, tandis qu’officiellement le régime politique reste une « dictature démocratique du peuple ».
Comment la Chine en est-elle arrivée à cette modernité ? Comment un régime autoritaire peut-il organiser et réguler l’ouverture économique et sociale ? Entre ruptures et continuités, la société chinoise est ici abordée sous de multiples angles : éducation, travail, santé, appartenance ethnique, migrations, rapports hommes-femmes, jeunesse, inégalités sociales, mouvements de contestation et de résistance.
La progression chronologique permet de se repérer dans les soixante années mouvementées qu’a traversées le peuple chinois ; les nombreux encadrés apportent des éclairages précis et des données récentes sur des aspects souvent méconnus de la société, au-delà des clichés sur la modernisation chinoise et ses acteurs à l’aube du XXIe siècle. »

Book: ICTs and Economic Development

Ashwani Saith and M. Vijayabaskar (eds), ICT and Indian Economic Development. Economy, Work, Regulation, New Delhi, Sage Publications, 2005

“This book evaluates the recent phenomenon of Information technology communication (ICT) development in India, and discusses such questions as: Can the growth be sustained? How far can an ICT revolution go towards modernising India’s economy? What could be the capacity of ICTs to induce rapid social transformation and change? Can India navigate all the pitfalls and hazards and retain its current comparative advantage in the field of ICT?

– Provide a systematic overview of the major developments and trends in the Indian ICT sector;

– Investigates the dynamism of the IT sector and whether it has contributed to wealth creation in any significant measure; and whether Bangalore, in its area of special strength-software-is a dynamic leader or merely a Silicon Valley follower;

– Assess the role of the State and of government policy, especially with regard to the opportunities for shaping the future of this sector;

– Explore the processes of the restructuring of work and employment in the wake of the IT revolution;

– Set the Indian experience in a wider context through a discussion of the Chinese experience, along with a comparative analysis of ICT clusters in the two countries.”

Book: ICTs and Social Change

Ashwani Saith, M. Vijayabaskar, V. Gayathri, ICTs and Indian Social Change. Diffusion, Poverty, Governance, New Delhi, Sage Publications, 2008

“This book is the first of its kind in putting together the optimistic voices of techno-idealists, critical social science perspectives on technology and a range of empirical material on the impacts of ICTs on the lives of people via its diffusion in the urban and rural spaces of work, consumption, e-governance and the new kinds of social identities it has fostered in India.

This volume views the diffusion of ICTs in India primarily from the socio-cultural realm. It provides an empirical and theoretical critique of some of the important premises that undergird these initiatives and brings together the voices of innovators in the ICT for development domain. It opens up an entire arena for dialogue between activists, technocrats, bureaucrats and academia on using ICTs to deliver development.”

Book: “Body Shopping” in ICT India

Xiang Biao, Global “Body Shopping”: An Indian Labor System in the Information Technology Industry, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2006

“How can America’s information technology (IT) industry predict serious labor shortages while at the same time laying off tens of thousands of employees annually? The answer is the industry’s flexible labor management system–a flexibility widely regarded as the modus operandi of global capitalism today. Global “Body Shopping” explores how flexibility and uncertainty in the IT labor market are constructed and sustained through concrete human actions.

Drawing on in-depth field research in southern India and in Australia, and folding an ethnography into a political economy examination, Xiang Biao offers a richly detailed analysis of the India-based global labor management practice known as “body shopping.” In this practice, a group of consultants–body shops–in different countries works together to recruit IT workers. Body shops then farm out workers to clients as project-based labor; and upon a project’s completion they either place the workers with a different client or “bench” them to await the next placement. Thus, labor is managed globally to serve volatile capital movement.

Underpinning this practice are unequal socioeconomic relations on multiple levels. While wealth in the New Economy is created in an increasingly abstract manner, everyday realities–stock markets in New York, benched IT workers in Sydney, dowries in Hyderabad, and women and children in Indian villages–sustain this flexibility.”

 

Report: R & D in ICT India

Payal Malik and P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan, Trends in Public and Private Investments in ICT R&D in India,  European Commission, Joint Research Centre Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2011

Executive Summary

“The Indian Information Communication Technology (ICT) industry is contributing to the national economy in many ways and almost all states in India are targeting the sector as a vehicle for economic development. NASSCOM’s 2009 strategic report estimates that the Indian IT-BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) industry achieved revenues of USD 71.7 billion in FY2009, of which the IT software and services industry accounted for USD 60 billion. Direct employment at the end of March 2009 was expected to reach nearly 2.23 million, while indirect job creation was estimated to touch 8 million. The sector’s revenues grew from 1.2% of national GDP in FY1998 to an estimated 5.8% in FY2009. The net value added by this sector to the economy was estimated at 3.5-4.1% for FY2009.

The Indian ICT sector has evolved in three phases: up to 1984, 1984–1990 and post-1990. In the first phase, apart from trying to establish its own technological trajectories, the state attempted to run the industry which resulted in no commercial sector. In this phase, there was no great differentiation between software and hardware. In the second phase, the government realized that software was a viable option for income generation and technological capability enhancement. In the third phase, the software export industry blossomed, aggressively promoted by both national and sub-national governments. Consequently, the export-driven growth model ignored the hardware sector and domestic sector, despite their huge potential. Though the ICT sector is growing in all domains, it is predominantly driven by software services and telecom services.

Until the 1990s, the Indian economy was under state control and there was little incentive for private industry to invest in R&D. The Indian ICT sector is dominated by the larger players with the top 200 firms contributing about 86% of the total revenues in 2008. Multinational firms dominate in the innovation space through their Indian R&D centres. Although larger Indian firms perform R&D activities, they are sub-contractors and do not have ownership of their activities. An analysis of secondary data showed that most of the multinational firms follow the conventional outsourcing model: they enter India as a cost centre which then evolves into a technology centre.

At present, the ICT sector is clustered in six cities: Bangalore, Pune, Chennai, Hyderabad, the National Capital Region (Noida, Delhi and Gurgaon) and Mumbai. However, efforts are being made by the central and state governments to spread the sector to second-tier cities. A comparison of the major ICT clusters shows that the Bangalore cluster presents a more mature eco-system for the ICT industry compared to the other clusters. Due to its historical lead advantages, it has a deep labour market, proximity to well-known research institutes, government research labs, the presence of venture capital, and a healthy mix of large domestic firms, multinationals and other supplementary firms.

Hardware manufacturing is weak with some innovation happening in semiconductor design and manufacturing. Poor manufacturing capabilities and lack of adequate support infrastructure will continue to put the Indian ICT industry at a disadvantage to competitive producers like China, Taiwan and Korea.

University-industry alliances are much to be desired, but they are limited to campus placement and student internships. The labour pool with engineering or ICT-related education is impressive in terms of numbers, but a closer look reveals a poor research component.

Though Indian firms are expanding their global reach and technology domains in service through acquisitions, it is difficult to conclude that R&D capabilities have been acquired. Indian firms continue to cater to western clients through software product development or engineering services, and they innovate for in-house consumption rather than developing off the-shelf products for the open market.

Since the Indian ICT sector concentrates on services, innovation is predominantly on processes. This service innovation can be observed in other areas:

• Transition from on-site to off-shore, by sending people for project execution at the client’s site to executing and managing projects in India;

• Productised services, in which Indian firms standardise the services provided to clients and sell them as productised services, a level below off-the-shelf products;

• Virtual extension, in which Indian firms serve as sub-contractors but interact with primary clients directly;

• Human capital capacity building, because though human capital is available, skill gaps are met by the sector itself.

• Finally, service process innovation is crucial in explaining the success of the Indian telecom sector. Tailored tariff packages in line with the affordability profiles of Indians and also outsourced network expansion were the first of their kind and have yet to become a global trend.”

Review: Salaam America

Aminah-Mohammad-Arif, Salaam America: South Asian Muslims in New York. London: Anthem Press, 2002. 355 pages.

Review by Pierre Gottschlich

In: Internationales Asienforum. 35 (2004), 3-4, pp. 373-375.

The South Asian Diaspora and especially the Indian-American community in the United States of America have received more academic attention during the last decade. The remarkably good education of this group, its quick economic success, and its perceived interior unity have made it not only a “model minority” as far as its adaptation into the socioeconomic environment of the U.S. is concerned, but also a more and more active and visible player in cultural and political affairs of the host country. Consequently, the last years have seen a couple of in-depth studies of certain parts of the community. Most if not all of these works, however, have focused on Hindu and, in part, Sikh immigrants to the United States. The large number of Indian Muslims that have come to America has widely been ignored. Aminah Mohammad-Arif’s study attempts to fill this gap of in-depth knowledge and is, therefore, from its mere intention alone of great value.

Although the author has conducted interviews with members of the Indian Muslim community all over the U.S., the main focus of her work is the New York metropolitan area. This region has been the setting of different other studies of the Indian-American community such as, for example, the books by Johanna Lessinger (1995) and Madhulika S. Khandelwal (2002) and provides, hence, a well-tested ground for academic research. In contrast to other works Mohammad-Arif concentrates on a special group within the community, a minority’s minority, and, thereby, obviously breaks with the myth of a uniform Indian-American origin, culture, or identity.

The book is divided into four parts. The first main section, “From the Indian Subcontinent to America”, starts with a chapter on the historical development of Islam in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Here, Mohammad-Arif describes the different Muslim traditions of Sunni, Shi’a, and Ahmadiyya in South Asia, thereby laying the foundation necessary for an understanding of intra-community dynamics in the United States. Since the South Asian Muslims in the U.S. represent a “microcosm of the Muslim population of the subcontinent” (p. 19), a short introduction to their original internal divisions is not only helpful, but essential. The second chapter focuses on the economic and demographic profile of the South Asian immigrant community in the United States. Besides a brief historical description, this section offers insights into issues like “Marriage and divorce” (p. 39ff) or “Ethnic business” (p. 42ff). Unfortunately, the statistics presented do rely heavily on the 1990 U.S. Census of Population, which renders several numbers obsolete. Nevertheless, this chapter proves to be very informative, especially because of the personal views presented in numerous interviews.

The second main part of Mohammad-Arif’s work deals with the process of adaptation to the new environment. The first chapter of this section concentrates on the role and importance of religion and religious practices for the South Asian Muslim community. Here, Mohammad-Arif successfully links theoretical aspects of religiosity to the specific framework of Islam and to the day-to-day performance of religious duties by the members of the community. She also includes many controversial issues such as the Muslim diet (p. 63ff) or the oftentimes questioned obligation of Muslim women to wear the veil (p. 66ff). These critical points of South Asian Muslim religiosity are described in context of their relation not only to the host society but also to Islam in general, since many features of Islam on the Indian subcontinent show remarkable differences to their Arab or African counterparts. In the following chapter, Mohammad-Arif explores the problems and challenges for the second generation members of the community. Their “’masala’ identity” (p. 84) between the religious, cultural, and social traditions of their parents and the everyday struggle for acceptance in school and work life is of prime importance to the community as a whole and certainly deserves the attention the author has devoted to it.

The third part of the book, “Redefining Islam”, investigates Islamic institutions and movements in the United States and their relations and adaptations to the host society. On the institutional side, Mohammad-Arif works with many well-researched and very informative, although possibly not necessarily representative, case studies of different mosques, Islamic centers, and Islamic schools. As for Islamic movements, she thoroughly describes two of the most important groups, namely the “Muslim Student Association (MSA)” and the “Islamic Circle of North America (INCA)”. These and other transnational operating movements and associations, as Mohammad-Arif clearly shows, do reflect the high degree of organization a well-educated immigrant group like the South Asian population can achieve (p. 189ff). The concluding part exclusively deals with the relationships of the South Asian Muslim community with others. In the first chapter of this section, the author returns to the idea of an immigrant community being a microcosm, but applies this concept to the whole Muslim world. According to Mohammad-Arif, the United States might see the “emergence of a ‘utopian umma’” (p. 193) reflecting an aspired unified Islam despite the internal diversity of the Muslim population in the U.S. Recent trends suggest the possible forming of a “pan-Islamic melting pot” (p. 206), a development that is fostered by the growing use of modern communication technology. The following chapter explores the oftentimes difficult relations between South Asian Muslims and Hindus in the light of events like the Ayodhya crisis (p. 214ff) and assesses the possibilities of a common South Asian identity. In the last chapter of this section, Mohammad-Arif turns to questions of integration into the host society, dealing with matters of mutual perception as well as with stereotypes and mechanism of discrimination. Hereby, she also touches on lobbying efforts by the community in order to raise awareness and acceptance, a point that seems to be becoming more and more important and may encourage further research. The book closes with a summarizing conclusion that reconstructs the main lines of argumentation in a straight manner.

Since the original, French version of this book was published in 2000, the consequences of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, have not been included in the main body of the work. Because of the prime importance of the challenges posed by this tragic event to the South Asian Muslim community, the author has added an afterword, written in February 2002. Here, Mohammad-Arif reflects on the immediate impact the terrorist strikes had on the community and discusses some of the first implications. The book also contains a glossary of the most important terms and an extensive bibliography. The statistical appendix is, at least in part, outdated, which is largely due to the fact that the South Asian Diaspora in the United States is one of the fastest growing and dynamically changing ethnic groups in the U.S.

Overall, Salaam America provides a valuable and readable source of information on a subject that has not received much attention yet. Aminah Mohammad-Arif has very successfully combined a thorough analysis of the South Asian Muslim population with indepth interviews of individual members of this community that convincingly support the author’s arguments. The relatively narrow regional scope proves to be advantageous to the focus of the assessment. Nevertheless, future research may also include more information on the large Indian-American Muslim communities in California, Texas, and Illinois.

References: 5. Outside India (Books)

Suggested reading list on Professions and Engineers

Updated 19th December 2011

Abbott, A. 1988. The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

Crawford P. 2009. Technical Workers in an Advanced Society. The Work, Careers and Politics of French Engineers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1st ed. 1989).

Belhoste, B. 2007. From technical corps to technocratic power: French  state engineers and their professional and cultural universe in the first half of the 19th century. History and Technology, 23, 2007. 209-225. (on collaboration with Kostas Chatzis).

Behloste, B. 2003. La Formation d’une technocratie. L’École polytechnique et ses élèves de la Révolution au Second Empire. Paris: Belin.

Belhoste, B, Dahan Dalmenico, and A. Picon. 1994. La formation polytechnicienne 1794-1994. Paris: Dunod.

Ben Saïd, S., and Gobe, E. 2004. Les ingénieurs tunisiens: Dynamiques récentes d’un groupe professionnel. Paris: L’Harmattan.

Berner, B. 1996. Professional of Wage-Worker? Engineers and Economic transformations in Sweden. In Meiksins, P. and Smith, C. (eds.), Engineering Labour: Technical Workers in Comparative Perspective, 1168-1195. London: Verso.

Bouffartigue, P. and Gadea, C. 1997. Les ingénieurs français: Spécificités nationales et dynamiques récentes d’un groupe professionnel. Revue française de sociologie 38 (2): 301-326.

Boussard, V., Demazière D., Milburn, Ph. 2010. L’injonction au professionnalisme. Analyses d’une dynamique plurielle. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.

Buchanan, R. A. 1989. The Engineers: A History of Engineering profession in Britain, 1750-1914. London: J. Kingsley Publishers.

Buchanan, R. A. 1983. Gentlemen Engineers: The Making of a Profession. Victorian Studies 26 (4): 407-429.

Canel, A., Oldenziel, R. and Zachamann, K. (eds.) 2004. Crossing Boundaries, Building Bridges: Comparing the History of Women Engineers, 1870s-1990s. Oxon, Routeldge.

Carr-Saunders, A. and Wilson, P. 1933. The Professions. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Champy, F. 2009. La sociologie des professions. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Cohen, Y. 2001. Organiser à l’aube du taylorisme. La pratique d’Ernest Mattern chez Peugeot, 1906-1919. Besançon : Presses universitaires franc-comptoises.

Crompton R. and Lefeuvre, N. 2003. Continuity and Change in the Gender Segregation of the Medical Profession in Britain and France. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 23 (4/5): 36-58.

Davies, C. 1996. The Sociology of Professions and the Profession of Gender. Sociology 30(4): 661–678.

Day, C. 1991. les Ecoles d’arts et métiers. L’enseignement technique en France, XIXe-XXe siècles. Paris: Belin.

Dhombres J. et Dhombres N. 1989. Naissance d’un pouvoir: science et savants en France (1791-1824). Paris: Payot.

Didier, C. 2008. Penser l’éthique des ingénieurs. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Didier, C. 2008. Les ingénieurs et l’éthique : pour un regard sociologique. Cachan: Hermès.

Dubar C., Tripier P., Boussard V. 2011. Sociologie des professions. Paris: Colin (4e édition).

Evetts, J. 1996. Gender and career in science and Engineering. London: Taylor & Francis.

Evetts, J. 2003. The Sociological Analysis of Professionalism: Occupational Change in the Modern World. International Sociology 18(2): 395–415.

Fayolle, A. 1999. L’ingénieur entrepreneur français: Contribution à la compréhension des comportements de création et reprise d’entreprises des ingénieurs diplômés. Paris: L’Harmattan.

Freidson E. 1988. Professional Powers. A Study of the Institutionalization of Formal Knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Freidson, E. 2001. Professionalism: The Third Logic. London: Polity.

Gadéa, C. and Demazière, D. 2009. La sociologie des groupes professionnels. Paris: La Découverte.

Grelon, A. 1986. Les ingénieurs de la crise: Titre et profession entre les deux guerres. Paris: Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales.

Grelon, A., Karvar, A., and Gourevitch, I. (dir) 2004. La formation des ingénieurs en perspectives: Modèles de références et réseaux de médiations 18e-20e siècles. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.

Gispen, K. 1989. New profession, old order: Engineers and German society 1815-1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gobe, E. 2004. L’ingénieur moderne au Maghreb. Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose.

Hanlon, G. 1998. Professionalism as Enterprise: Service Class Politics and the Redefinition of Professionalism. Sociology 32 (1): 43–63.

Henry, O. 2012 (forthcoming). Les guérisseurs de l’économie. Sociogenèse du métier de consultant (1900-1950). Paris: CNRS Editions.

Henry, O. 2012 (forthcoming).  Aux frontières du public et du privé: experts et consultants. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales. mars, in collaboration with Frédéric Pierru.

Homs, O. 1991. L’évolution de la fonction technique dans les industries espagnoles: La situation des ingénieurs dans les années 1980. Sociétés contemporaines 6: 81-92.

Hughes, E.C. 1961. Ethnocentric Sociology. Social Forces 40 (1): 1-4.

Hughes, E.C. 1963. The Professions. Daedalus 92 (4): 655-668.

Jacomy, B. 1984. A la recherche de sa mission, la Société des Ingénieurs civils. Culture technique, Les ingénieurs 12: 209-219.

Khelfaoui, H. 2000. Les ingénieurs dans le système éducatif: L’aventure des instituts technologiques algériens. Paris: Publisud.

Lintsen, H. 1980. Ingenieurs in Nederlands in de 19e eeuw: Een streven naar erkenning en macht. Ph.D. Thesis. The Hague.

Longuenesse, E. 2007. Professions et société au Proche-Orient. Déclin des élites, crise des classes moyennes. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.

Malatesta, M. 1996. I profissionisti. Turin: Einaudi.

Marry, C. 2004. Les femmes ingénieurs: Une révolution respectueuse. Paris: Belin.

Martykánová, D. 2009. Les fils du progrès et de la civilisation: les ingénieurs des travaux publics en Espagne aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles. Quaderns d’historia de l’enginyeria X: 251-270.

Martykánová, D. 2010. Reconstructing Ottoman Engineers: Archaeology of a Profession (1789-1914). Pisa: Edizioni Plus – Pisa University Press.

McCormick, K. 2000. Engineers in Japan and Britain: Education, Training and Employment. London and New York: Nissan Institute/Routledge Japanese Studies.

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Panaia, M. 2006. Trayectorias de ingenieros tecnológicos: Graduados y alumnos en el mercado de trabajo. Buenos Aires: Mino y Davila.

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Rae, John B. 1975. Engineers are people. Technology and Culture 16 (3): 404-418.

Ribeill, G. 2011. L’accouchement laborieux d’une institution d’origine centralienne: la Société des Ingénieurs civils de France (1848). Centraliens 607: 44-48.

Rodrigues, M.L. 1999. Os Engenheiros em Portugal. Profissionalizaçao e protagonismo. Oeieras: Celta.

Shinn, T. 1980. Savoir scientifique et pouvoir social. L’École polytechnique 1794-1914. Paris: Presses de la fondation de sciences politiques.

Thépot, A. 1998. Les ingénieurs des Mines du XIXe siècle: Histoire d’un corps technique d’Etat 1810-1914. Paris: Editions Eska.

Vérin H. 1993. La gloire des ingénieurs. L’intelligence technique du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle. Paris: Albin Michel.

Weiss J.H. 1982. The Making of Technological Man. The Social Origins of French Engineering Education. Cambridge et Londres: The MIT Press.

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Zussman, R. 1985. Mechanics of the Middle Class: Work and politics among American Engineers. Los Angeles: University of California.

 

References: 4. Thesis

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Websites

Online Union Catalogue of Indian Universities: http://indcat.inflibnet.ac.in/indcat/ (IC)

Vidyanidhi. E-Scholarship Portal and Digital Library: http://www.vidyanidhi.org.in/ (VN)

Since 2010

Caru, Vanessa. Le logement des travailleurs et la question sociale. Bombay (1850-1950). Université Paris-Diderot Université Paris-VII. Paris. 2010.

2000-2009

Chhabra, Deepak. 2003. Factors Related to Human Resources Management Effectiveness in Indian Engineering Management. Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi. Department of Humanities and Social Sciences. Guide: Sharma, Anuradha. (IC)

Coelho, K. 2004. Of Engineers, Rationalities and Rule: Ethnography of Neoliberal Reform in an Urban Water Utility in South India. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. University of Arizona, Tuscson, USA.

Kamala Devi, A. 2005. Women Engineers in Andhra Pradesh: A Socio Economic study of Employed and Unemployed Women Engineers. Andhra University, Waltair. Sociology. (VN)

Khandekar, Aalok. 2010. Engineering the Global Indian: Skills, Cosmopolitanism, and Families in Circuits of High-Tech Migrations between India and the United States. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York.

Mohitkar, Vinod Mahadeorao. 2007. Development of Quality Assurance Mechanism for Engineering Education System. Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University. Department of Civil Engineering. Guide: Nagarnaik, P. B. and Wakde, G. (IC)

Mukharjee, Manjeer. 2009. Engineering Family Values: Assisted Reproductive Technologies and their Impact on Kinship Relations in West Bengal. Centre for the Social Systems. Jawaharlal Nehru University. Guide: Gupta, Dipankumar. (IC)

Nair, Sreelekha. 2004. Education and Work: A Study of Women Engineers in Kerala. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Zakir Hussain Centre for Educational Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. (VN)

Palani, Natha Raja M. 2008. Measurement of Service Quality in Engineering Education and Healthcare. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Guide: Wadhwa, S. and Deshmukh, S. G. (IC)

Phalkey, J. 2007. Science, State-Formation and Development: The Organization of Nuclear research in India 1938-1959. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (USA). http://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/36535

Ramnath, A. 2007. Breaking Free: Technical Education Policy in India Immediately before and After Independence. Unpublished M.Phil. Thesis, Oxford University.

Ravindran, T. 2005. English for Engineers: An Alternative Syllabus for Engineering Colleges in Tamil Nadu. Anna University, Chennai. Education. (VN)

Sakthivel, P B. 2006. Total Quality Management Implementation in Higher Engineering Education: An Empirical Study Relating to India. Anna University. Department of Management. Guide: Raju, R. (IC)

Shandil, Ram Krishna. 2003. Reengineering Management Education in India. Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla. Department of Management. (IC)

1990-1999

Arun Kumar. 1991. Engineering Education and Public Works Department, 1906-1947. University of Delhi. Department of History. Guide: Basu, Aparana. (IC)

Gautam, Aditya. 1999. Cost-effectiveness of Continuing Engineering Education in India: A Case of Roorkee University. University of Roorkee. Department of Humanities and Social Sciences. (IC)

Gondalia, Dhirajlal Vaghjibhai. 1992. A Study of the Impact of Self-Awareness upon the Job-Satisfaction among the Engineers of Gujarat. Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar. Psychology. (VN)

Gourishanakar, A D. 1995. Study of the Relationship between Social Class Educational Achievement and Access to Educational Opportunity with Special Reference to Medical and Engineering Education in Karnataka State. Bangalore University. Department of Education. (IC)

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Sanghi, Seema            . 1993. Effect of Need Pattern and Job Values upon Job Satisfaction and Personal Adjustment of Public and Private Sector Engineers. University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. Management Studies. (VN)

1980-1989

Arora, Ramesh Kanta. 1980. Investigation into the Problems of Medicine, Law, Engineering and Education in Relation to Personality Factors. Aligarh Muslim University. Department of Education. Guide: Zaidi, Sajida. (IC)

Gadgil, A V. 1986. Education and Industrial Productivity: A Case Study of Workers and Supervisors Employed in the Engineering Industry in Pune Metropolitan Region. University of Pune. Department of Economics. Guide: Pinto, Silvester. (IC)

Indira, R. 1982. Sociological Study of Engineering Education. University of Mysore. Department of Sociology. Guide: Parvathamma, C. (IC)

Jaiswal, Rajendra Prasad. 1989. Professional Status of Women: A Comparative Study of Women and Men Scientists and Engineers. Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Education. (VN)

Jakatdar, Vidula Sharad. 1982. Scientists and Engineers in Indian industry: A Sociological Study of Professionals in Industrial Organizations. University of Pune. Department of Sociology. Ph.D Thesis. (IC)

Karunes, Sabita. 1984. Factors Related to Professional Productivity: A Study of Scientists and Engineers in Indian Institutes of Technology. Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi. Management Studies. (VN)

Sharma, Hemant Lata            . 1987. Comparative Study of Engineers and Civil Services Personnel Belonging to Different Socio-Economic Status in Relation to their Interest and Creativity. Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra. Education. (VN)

1970-1979

Bajpai, Devi Prasad. 1978. Social Alienation in Professional Ethics: A Sociological Study of Alienation among Teachers, Lawyers, Doctors and Engineers in the City of Lucknow. Agra University, Agra. (VN)

Eisemon, T. O. 1973. The Impact of American Educational Assistance: A Study of the Professional Activities and Outlooks of Indian Engineering Faculty. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin.

Pandey, S. V. 1978. Status, Power and Career Mobility among Civil Servants, Engineers and Doctors: A Comparative Study. University of Lucknow, Lucknow. Sociology. (VN)

Sebaly, K. P. 1972. The Assistance of Four Nations in the Establishment of the Indian Institutes of Technology, 1945-1970. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan, Comparative Education Dissertation Series.

Shanthamani, V S. 1971. A Socio-Psychological Study of Unemployed Engineers and Diplomats. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Engineering. (VN)

1960-1969

Misra, Hemkanta. 1962. Personality Factors in High and Low Achievers in Engineering Education. Kharagpur. Indian Institute of Technology. Department of Education. (IC)

1950-1959

Mubashir Hasan. 1954. On the General Education of an Engineer. Aligarh Muslim University. Department of Civil Engineering. Guide: Dawson, F. M. and Moehlman, A. H. (IC)

 

 

References: 3. Reports

Updated 19th December 2011

2000-2009

Banerjee, R. and Muley, V. P. 2008. Engineering Education in India. Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. http://casi.sas.upenn.edu/system/files/Engineering+Education+in+India+Dec1608-1.pdf

Mukhopadhyay, C. 2001. The Cultural Context of Gendered Science: the Case of India. Report of a study funded by the National Science Foundation, USA. http://www.sjsu.edu/people/carol.mukhopadhyay/papers/

Upadhya, C. and Vasanthi, A. R. 2006. Work, Culture and Sociality in the Indian Information Technology (IT) Industry: A Sociological Study. Final Report submitted to Indo-Dutch Programme for Alternatives in Development.

1990-1999

AICTE. 1994. Report of the High Power Committee for Mobilisation of Additional Resource for Technical Education, February. New Delhi: Ministry Of Human Resource Development. http://www.education.nic.in/cd50years/f/J/K/toc.htm

AICTE. 1999. Technical Education in Independent India 1947-1997. A Compendium to Commemorate the 50th Anniversary of Independence. New Delhi: All India Council for Technical Education.

MHRD. 1995. Report of The I.I.T. Synergy Sub-Group, November, Compilation on 50 years of Indian Education: 1947-1997. New Delhi: Ministry Of Human Resource Development. http://www.education.nic.in/cd50years/f/G/9Z/Toc.htm

1980-1989

MHRD. 1986. Recommendations, IIT Review Committee. Delhi: Ministry Of Human Resource Development. http://www.education.nic.in/cd50years/f/G/I/Toc.htm

MHRD. 1986. Report, IIT Review Committee. New Delhi: Ministry Of Human Resource Development. http://www.education.nic.in/cd50years/f/G/J/Toc.htm